Code in the Academy: Rebecca Senior

In this interview series, the RSE team talk to University of Sheffield students about the role of coding in their research.

In out first of the series, we speak to Rebecca Senior.

She's in the final year of her PhD in the Department of Animal and Plant Sciences studying the interactions between land-use and climate change in tropical rainforests and what this means for biodiversity conservation. She's currently looking into how deforestation affects forest connectivity, so lots of spatial analyses. She mainly codes in R but also I dabbles in a bit of Python.

How did you first get into coding?

What motivated you to learn? How and what did you start learning?

When I was an undergrad we did our statistics in R commander, which is a GUI (Graphical User Interface) for R. A supervisor wisely told me that there’d come a point when I couldn’t do what I needed using R commander alone, so I spent the summer before my final year grappling with R and cursing it profusely until I was somewhat competent.

What are your favourite coding tools?

I’m pretty in love with the R + RStudio + tidyverse combo. RStudio is an integrated development environment (IDE) for R, which basically makes coding look far less hideous, and which allows you to write, save and run code in a more efficient way. The tidyverse is “an opinionated collection of R packages designed for data science”. The various packages make data management/analysis/presentation much more intuitive for many people.

How do you think coding has helped you in your work?

For one thing it got me an internship at UNEP-WCMC (UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre) after I finished my undergrad, and it subsequently helped me to get this PhD position! More fundamentally, coding has sped things up, enhanced the reproducibility of my work and my ability to collaborate with others, and has helped me tackle complex problems that I couldn’t have done manually.

Tell us about your favourite coding achievement.

I wrote a teeny R package to estimate the time of sunrise and sunset based on date and location. It’s actually a really simple implementation of solar calculations developed by NOAA for MS Excel, but it was instrumental to one of my thesis chapters and it was my first experience of making an R package. Check it out here:!

How do you think these skills can be better supported in academia?

Since all researchers (students and supervisors alike) are judged primarily on their publication output, encouraging students to publish software would be an obvious place to start. In my field, the journal Methods in Ecology and Evolution is a very popular option for people seeking to publish R packages.

That said, not all coding results in something publishable and, in any case, the sharing of software via peer-reviewed publications is not always a good measure of its usefulness anyway. I think students should be encouraged to share their coding achievements with peers, and more broadly via online platforms such as GitHub and Gist. Software has made its way into academic impact reporting, so perhaps coding should also be more valued within progress reports and theses?

It would be great to see the teaching of coding broaden beyond statistics, especially within the life sciences. There is so much more to coding than conducting t-tests! With continuing advances in technology we have to grapple with much bigger and more varied datasets, analyse them in sometimes very complex ways, and present the methods and results in a clear and succinct format, all the while maintaining reproducibility as much as possible. That’s a whole heap of coding skills that are very infrequently taught!

How do you see coding fitting in with your future career?

Whether I stay in academia or not, I will continue coding. I hope that my coding skills will help me secure a research position post-PhD. I’m not sure yet exactly where my research will take me, but I hope it involves developing R packages and making pretty figures in ggplot.

Any coding advice for new PhD students?

Don’t be afraid to set aside time for learning something new. Learning takes time – accept that and incorporate it into your work schedule. You’re still a student and some of the skills you learn may open doors you didn’t even know were there.

CodeFirstGirls meets Hacktoberfest

It is that time of the year again! The autumn-winter courses for CodeFirst: girls are in full swing at Sheffield, Manchester and many other locations all over the UK.

As the lead instructor of the Python courses part of my 'job' is to make sure that everything runs smoothly and that the gals make the most of the course. Since the courses run only over 8 weeks and we have loads of ground to cover I decided to improve the way the instructors communicate and plan the course as well as how we deliver the contents for the course.


These are some of the approaches we are currently using in our courses:

  • GitHub: I use Git and GitHub all the time for all my projects and tasks. So it only made sense to make it a central point of contact as well as the main place for all the additional material to be kept into. It has worked wonders, all of the organisation stuff is there, we make sure that the additional materials developed by us are peer-reviewed and it makes it makes all of our lives easier.
  • GitKraken: ok ok I know many people would prefer teaching Git using the command line, but I have used both command line and GUI approaches and I think you first need to know your audience to better understand which approach to use. In this case GitKraken was my weapon of choice... powerful, intuitive, it can be easily integrated with GitHub, BitBucket and GitLab, and did I say beautiful? Yes, which makes it suitable for visual learners.
  • Learning by doing: I am a firm believer of learning by doing. It sometimes is the best approach to get the grips of things. How do you make the git-add-commit-push workflow a natural habit? Exactly, by doing it over and over again. So we are making sure that every session would include bits and pieces where the gals had to generate pieces of code, push them to their repos, collaborate with others and or create pull requests.
  • Feedback on the fly: As a Sofware/Data carpentry intructor some of the things I love the most is the use of post-its. That way you and the helpers know straight away who is struggling (red post-it) and how is not (green post-it) that way the learners get help instantly and the main instructor gets visual clues on how fast or slow to proceed. At the end of the day the learners write on the post-its something they liked or learned and something that could be improved or that they struggled with. So I decided to give this a go at CFG and so it has helped us a lot so far.
  • Active engagement: one of the key things that makes initiatives such as CodeFirstGirls work is not the fact that we teach them how to code, online courses do that. But the whole thing is an excellent community building activity, the gals find common minded people, are exposed to role models, and feel empowered to continue their career in tech. That is the beauty of what we do. So it is only fair that we engage with them. We have our own #hashtag (Go now and look for #ShefCodeFirst in Twitter), we have guest speakers, slack channels, our very own course website (obvs in GitHub pages) and we try to open their eyes to the wider tech and open source community. Also we have many Octocat stickers to give away!!!


I mentioned before that we try to keep the gals actively engaged throughout the course as well as to integrate them to the wider community. And what a better way to do this but getting the gals involved in Hacktoberfest!!! We ere a bit tight on time but I thought it was worth trying to get some of the girls involved in something like this.

By doing so the girls would get the following benefits:

  • Learn how to contribute to open source projects
  • Integrate to the open source community
  • Get extra coding practice
  • Get extra git practice (4 Pull Requests were needed to complete this)
  • If completed they would get a special edition t-shirt (Whoop whoop)

That meant extra work for me: find specific tasks and projects for them to contribute to, merge pull requests bonanza, and prepare extra gifs and guides on how to complete the tasks. But it was totally worth it!!! I was more than delighted to see all the PR coming into our own repo as well as getting all the notifications from the girls getting involved in Hacktoberfest.

I know not everyone got involved as many have PhDs, Master's, dissertations, and a life to look after. But I am massively proud of them all. So many of our gals had never used Git or GitHub before and now they are collaborating like pros.

Talk about motivation :) And if you want to keep up to date with the end of course projects they will be presenting in 5 weeks time keep an eye on Twitter!